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England is the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom, which it shares with Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Geographically, England is located on the island of Great Britain, which it shares only with Scotland and Wales. The capital city of England, as also with the U.K. as a whole, is London.
Historically, the Kingdom of England was founded in the year 927 after the union of seven smaller Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. England conquered Wales in 1277–1283, and then annexed it to become part of the Kingdom of England in 1535–1542. The Crown of the Kingdom of England became united with the Crown of the Kingdom of Ireland under the same monarch in 1541, still represented today in Northern Ireland, and then also with the Crown of the Kingdom of Scotland in 1603, but the Kingdom of England did not formally enter into a United Kingdom with these crowns as one sovereign state until 1707. Today, England and Wales still form a united legal jurisdiction inherited from the Kingdom of England, but they have always been likened as separate countries within a larger state, and Wales has had its own separate government since 1999.
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- Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. Absent in the early Arthurian material, Camelot first appeared in 12th-century French romances and, after the Lancelot-Grail cycle, eventually came to be described as the fantastic capital of Arthur's realm and a symbol of the Arthurian world. The stories locate it somewhere in Great Britain and sometimes associate it with real cities, though more usually its precise location is not revealed. Most scholars regard it as being entirely fictional, its geography being perfect for romance writers; Arthurian scholar Norris J. Lacy commented that "Camelot, located no where in particular, can be anywhere". Nevertheless arguments about the location of the "real Camelot" have occurred since the 15th century and continue to rage today in popular works and for tourism purposes.
- Avalon is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudohistorical account Historia Regum Britanniae ("The History of the Kings of Britain") as the place where King Arthur's sword Excalibur was forged and later where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical practices and people such as Morgan le Fay.